Play the Italian WayPlay the Italian Way Giuseppe EmmaGiuseppe Emma UEFA B Preparatory CourseUEFA B Preparatory Course CoachCoach 2. Origins of the gameOrigins of the game  Before the introduction of the offside rule, the Italian gameBefore the introduction of the offside rule, the Italian game (1934 squad showed below) was tactically similar to all the(1934 squad showed below) was tactically similar to all the others.others.  But it is possible to notice the flairness of the players fromBut it is possible to notice the flairness of the players from 1934 and 1938 success.1934 and 1938 success.  Players like Silvio Piola and Giuseppe Meazza (photo below)

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Play the Italian way
1. Play the Italian WayPlay the Italian Way Giuseppe EmmaGiuseppe Emma UEFA B Preparatory CourseUEFA B Preparatory Course CoachCoach
2. Origins of the gameOrigins of the game  Before the introduction of the offside rule, the Italian gameBefore the introduction of the offside rule, the Italian game (1934 squad showed below) was tactically similar to all the(1934 squad showed below) was tactically similar to all the others.others.  But it is possible to notice the flairness of the players fromBut it is possible to notice the flairness of the players from 1934 and 1938 success.1934 and 1938 success.  Players like Silvio Piola and Giuseppe Meazza (photo below)Players like Silvio Piola and Giuseppe Meazza (photo below) showed that type of flairness.showed that type of flairness.
3. 1960s the making of “Catenaccio”1960s the making of “Catenaccio”  In contrast to the Brazilian style of play,In contrast to the Brazilian style of play, the Italian style catenaccio resulted in thethe Italian style catenaccio resulted in the typical counter style football.typical counter style football.  They used a libero who played constantlyThey used a libero who played constantly behind the 4-man defensive line. Theybehind the 4-man defensive line. They played man-to-man marking in theplayed man-to-man marking in the midfield and the defensive line and thatmidfield and the defensive line and that made it look like couples-football.made it look like couples-football.  Partly due to the outstanding individualPartly due to the outstanding individual players at Inter Milan, Herrera achieved aplayers at Inter Milan, Herrera achieved a lot of success in the sixties with this stylelot of success in the sixties with this style of playof play
4. CatenaccioCatenaccio
5. Outcomes of CatenaccioOutcomes of Catenaccio  The catenaccio style was the proof thatThe catenaccio style was the proof that success is always possible if you are ablesuccess is always possible if you are able to link the individual qualities within theto link the individual qualities within the team to team tactical guidelinesteam to team tactical guidelines  However, in the 1970 Mexican World Cup,However, in the 1970 Mexican World Cup, Italy failed to win the cup, as BrazilianItaly failed to win the cup, as Brazilian style proved to be clearly better than thestyle proved to be clearly better than the Italian styleItalian style  Since then, few countries followed theSince then, few countries followed the Italian style. By contrast, very few got toItalian style. By contrast, very few got to equalize Brazil’s success and style ofequalize Brazil’s success and style of game.game.
6. Analysis of the catenaccioAnalysis of the catenaccio  First of all, the catenaccio style is much easier toFirst of all, the catenaccio style is much easier to be played and developed than any other style.be played and developed than any other style. Why is that? Because it is much harder toWhy is that? Because it is much harder to develop an attacking style.develop an attacking style.  Counter style football uses a more wait-and-seeCounter style football uses a more wait-and-see approach and is more reactive.approach and is more reactive.  This style is easier to carry out in respect toThis style is easier to carry out in respect to individual tactical and team tactical aspects; inindividual tactical and team tactical aspects; in other words it is easier to play. It is lessother words it is easier to play. It is less vulnerable, and because of that, also morevulnerable, and because of that, also more successful. An attacking style of play requiressuccessful. An attacking style of play requires players who grew up playing this style of footballplayers who grew up playing this style of football as youth players. This is not necessary whenas youth players. This is not necessary when playing counter style footballplaying counter style football
7. Origins of the Catenaccio styleOrigins of the Catenaccio style  Catenaccio Style FootballCatenaccio Style Football  Catenaccio soccer philosophy: if the opponents cannot score aCatenaccio soccer philosophy: if the opponents cannot score a goal, they cannot win the matchgoal, they cannot win the match   Catenaccio is a defense-oriented strategy first introduced byCatenaccio is a defense-oriented strategy first introduced by Austrian coach Karl Rappan in the 1930s. It became popularAustrian coach Karl Rappan in the 1930s. It became popular during the 1960s when Argentinea coach Helenio Herrera used itduring the 1960s when Argentinea coach Helenio Herrera used it to lead Serie A club Inter Milano to several championships.to lead Serie A club Inter Milano to several championships. The success of Inter Milano under Herrera encouraged manyThe success of Inter Milano under Herrera encouraged many Italian teams to adopt catenaccio style soccer. This same strategyItalian teams to adopt catenaccio style soccer. This same strategy was utilized by the Italian national team when Herrera waswas utilized by the Italian national team when Herrera was appointed its manager.appointed its manager. Because of its popularity in Italy, catenaccio calcio became almostBecause of its popularity in Italy, catenaccio calcio became almost synonymous with Italian football in the 1960s.synonymous with Italian football in the 1960s. But in the 1980s catenaccio began to decline as it proved to beBut in the 1980s catenaccio began to decline as it proved to be ineffective against attack-oriented strategies such as totalineffective against attack-oriented strategies such as total football. Yet there remain teams today that still used the oldfootball. Yet there remain teams today that still used the old soccer style that once dominated Europe.soccer style that once dominated Europe.
8. How does catenaccio calcio work?How does catenaccio calcio work?  Catenaccio calcio literally translates as “door bolt football.” It is aCatenaccio calcio literally translates as “door bolt football.” It is a football strategy that employs a very tight man-marking defense,football strategy that employs a very tight man-marking defense, with players staying deep in their own half to prevent any offensewith players staying deep in their own half to prevent any offense by the opponents.by the opponents. Catenaccio defense seems to block any passage towards the goal,Catenaccio defense seems to block any passage towards the goal, and so the name “door bolt” soccer. The most significantand so the name “door bolt” soccer. The most significant innovation of catenaccio is an additional defensive player calledinnovation of catenaccio is an additional defensive player called the libero or sweeper.the libero or sweeper. The libero is an Italian word which means “free”. Most often, heThe libero is an Italian word which means “free”. Most often, he freely roams in front of the goal to prevent any penetration by thefreely roams in front of the goal to prevent any penetration by the opponents. The sweeper or libero also performs a number of otheropponents. The sweeper or libero also performs a number of other defensive tasks for the team.defensive tasks for the team. The sweeper covers an opponent who manages to break the twoThe sweeper covers an opponent who manages to break the two lines of defense. He is also tasked to control loose balls andlines of defense. He is also tasked to control loose balls and double-mark an opponent when necessary. If the opposing teamdouble-mark an opponent when necessary. If the opposing team has a talented striker, the sweeper may be assigned to man-markhas a talented striker, the sweeper may be assigned to man-mark him.him. With the libero to provide an additional line of defense, the otherWith the libero to provide an additional line of defense, the other defenders and midfielders perform other assignments to preventdefenders and midfielders perform other assignments to prevent the opponents from scoring.the opponents from scoring.
9. How does catenaccio works?How does catenaccio works?  The midfield and the defensive back keep the ball fromThe midfield and the defensive back keep the ball from getting near the goal. Their primary objectives are togetting near the goal. Their primary objectives are to disrupt any offensive flow, put pressure on the attackers,disrupt any offensive flow, put pressure on the attackers, and deny the best offensive players from getting the ball.and deny the best offensive players from getting the ball. While teams utilizing catenaccio focus primarily on defense,While teams utilizing catenaccio focus primarily on defense, it does not mean that they are not dangerous offensively.it does not mean that they are not dangerous offensively. The catenaccio tactic can easily be used for counterattack,The catenaccio tactic can easily be used for counterattack, which may leave the offensive team with no time to reactwhich may leave the offensive team with no time to react to the quick play switch of catenaccio calcio.to the quick play switch of catenaccio calcio. Fouling and conceding free kicks is alright in catenaccio, asFouling and conceding free kicks is alright in catenaccio, as long as they are far from the goal and they do not lead tolong as they are far from the goal and they do not lead to bookings. Since this tactic employs additional rank, thebookings. Since this tactic employs additional rank, the catenaccio formation is often 1-3-3-3, 1-4-4-1, or 1-4-3-2.catenaccio formation is often 1-3-3-3, 1-4-4-1, or 1-4-3-2.
10. How does catenaccio works?How does catenaccio works?  Catenaccio was first introduced by Austrian football coachCatenaccio was first introduced by Austrian football coach Karl Rappan in the 1930s. As a coach forKarl Rappan in the 1930s. As a coach for SwissSwiss footballfootball club Servette in 1932, Rappan first introduce theclub Servette in 1932, Rappan first introduce the libero then known as “verrou” which means “lock” inlibero then known as “verrou” which means “lock” in French.French. Rappan also became the manager of Switzerland’s nationalRappan also became the manager of Switzerland’s national team, which he led to successful international matchesteam, which he led to successful international matches against powerhouses like Germany and England.against powerhouses like Germany and England. Catenaccio football, however, is closely associated withCatenaccio football, however, is closely associated with Italy since it was the Italians who played it extensively. InItaly since it was the Italians who played it extensively. In 1947, Italian coach Nereo Rocco used catenaccio calcio to1947, Italian coach Nereo Rocco used catenaccio calcio to make Triestina finish second place in Serie A, themake Triestina finish second place in Serie A, the ItalianItalian football leaguefootball league..
11. WeaknessesWeaknesses  Although catenaccio was extensively used in the 1960s and 1970sAlthough catenaccio was extensively used in the 1960s and 1970s by theby the Italian national football teamItalian national football team, it is nearly obsolete at, it is nearly obsolete at present. Teams need to adopt more offensive strategies in orderpresent. Teams need to adopt more offensive strategies in order to advance in football competitions since wins are now givento advance in football competitions since wins are now given bigger points. Before, teams were rewarded 2 points for a win, 1bigger points. Before, teams were rewarded 2 points for a win, 1 point for a draw, and 0 for a loss. The same points are awardedpoint for a draw, and 0 for a loss. The same points are awarded today for loss and draw, but a win is already awarded with 3today for loss and draw, but a win is already awarded with 3 points to encourage teams to true spirit of football—lively andpoints to encourage teams to true spirit of football—lively and attacking.attacking.  Catenaccio calcio is a poorly balanced playing style since itCatenaccio calcio is a poorly balanced playing style since it focuses too much on defense. It is not practical for stronger teamsfocuses too much on defense. It is not practical for stronger teams to play catenaccio since it nullifies their offensive force.to play catenaccio since it nullifies their offensive force.  Catennacio football requires players to man-mark. This can easilyCatennacio football requires players to man-mark. This can easily lead to confusion when playing against a team whose playerslead to confusion when playing against a team whose players regularly switch positions, as in total soccer.regularly switch positions, as in total soccer.  Since teams prioritize defense when playing catenaccio soccer,Since teams prioritize defense when playing catenaccio soccer, they will have to adopt a retreat game style. This can make teamsthey will have to adopt a retreat game style. This can make teams unpopular and will subject them to criticism for using anunpopular and will subject them to criticism for using an antianti football strategyfootball strategy..
12. StrengthsStrengths  StrengthsStrengths  Catenaccio is an effectiveCatenaccio is an effective defensive football strategydefensive football strategy. The double line of. The double line of defense prevents opponents from getting the ball near the goal. In casedefense prevents opponents from getting the ball near the goal. In case these two ranks are broken, the libero and goalkeeper will still be there tothese two ranks are broken, the libero and goalkeeper will still be there to protect the goal.protect the goal.  The libero is useful if the opposing team has a brilliant striker. By closelyThe libero is useful if the opposing team has a brilliant striker. By closely marking the striker, the libero weakens him as it would require him extramarking the striker, the libero weakens him as it would require him extra effort to get the ball. Having a man that marks the striker also means thateffort to get the ball. Having a man that marks the striker also means that he will never be left open to use his offensive skills to score.he will never be left open to use his offensive skills to score.  Catenaccio is an excellent formation for counterattacking. By creatingCatenaccio is an excellent formation for counterattacking. By creating strong defensive walls, the opponents will be forced to add more players tostrong defensive walls, the opponents will be forced to add more players to their offense. This weakens their defense and creates a chance for thetheir offense. This weakens their defense and creates a chance for the catenaccio formation to make a long pass to its forwards.catenaccio formation to make a long pass to its forwards.  Catenaccio relies primarily on collective hard work and not on individualCatenaccio relies primarily on collective hard work and not on individual skills. Therefore, it is an effective strategy for weaker teams. It is alsoskills. Therefore, it is an effective strategy for weaker teams. It is also effective for teams who become undermanned after aeffective for teams who become undermanned after a red cardred card..  Emphasis on a defensive style of play greatly improves the defense ofEmphasis on a defensive style of play greatly improves the defense of players. Some of theplayers. Some of the best soccer defendersbest soccer defenders are product of catenaccioare product of catenaccio calcio. They are Claudio Gentile, Gaetano Scirea, Paolo Maldini, andcalcio. They are Claudio Gentile, Gaetano Scirea, Paolo Maldini, and Alessandro Costacurta.Alessandro Costacurta.
13. Catenaccio in the pastCatenaccio in the past  Catenaccio was first introduced by Austrian football coachCatenaccio was first introduced by Austrian football coach Karl Rappan in the 1930s. As a coach forKarl Rappan in the 1930s. As a coach for SwissSwiss footballfootball club Servette in 1932, Rappan first introduce theclub Servette in 1932, Rappan first introduce the libero then known as “verrou” which means “lock” inlibero then known as “verrou” which means “lock” in French.French. Rappan also became the manager of Switzerland’s nationalRappan also became the manager of Switzerland’s national team, which he led to successful international matchesteam, which he led to successful international matches against powerhouses like Germany and England.against powerhouses like Germany and England. Catenaccio football, however, is closely associated withCatenaccio football, however, is closely associated with Italy since it was the Italians who played it extensively. InItaly since it was the Italians who played it extensively. In 1947, Italian coach Nereo Rocco used catenaccio calcio to1947, Italian coach Nereo Rocco used catenaccio calcio to make Triestina finish second place in Serie A, themake Triestina finish second place in Serie A, the ItalianItalian football leaguefootball league..
14. Catenaccio in the pastCatenaccio in the past  In the 1960s, catenaccio soccer was utilized by Helenio Herrera whoIn the 1960s, catenaccio soccer was utilized by Helenio Herrera who brought Internazionale Milano to 3 Serie A Championship titles and 2brought Internazionale Milano to 3 Serie A Championship titles and 2 European Championship Cups. In 1969, Herrera moved to AS Roma whereEuropean Championship Cups. In 1969, Herrera moved to AS Roma where he won the Italian Cup using the same defensive soccer strategy.he won the Italian Cup using the same defensive soccer strategy. Herrera was famous for using catenaccio calcio to win 1-0 matches. TheHerrera was famous for using catenaccio calcio to win 1-0 matches. The basic elements to Herrera’s strategy were tight defense and rapidbasic elements to Herrera’s strategy were tight defense and rapid counterattacks.counterattacks. But in 1970, catenaccio-style soccer began to decline because of moreBut in 1970, catenaccio-style soccer began to decline because of more innovative and more offensive strategies. In 1972, Herrera’s Inter wasinnovative and more offensive strategies. In 1972, Herrera’s Inter was defeated 2-0 in the European Cup finals by Ajax, with itsdefeated 2-0 in the European Cup finals by Ajax, with its total football strategytotal football strategy..  The following year, Nereo Rocco’s AC Milan reached the European SuperThe following year, Nereo Rocco’s AC Milan reached the European Super Cup finals only to be hammered by Ajax 6-0. These two major defeats ofCup finals only to be hammered by Ajax 6-0. These two major defeats of Inter and AC Milan signaled the need for a change in catenaccio-styleInter and AC Milan signaled the need for a change in catenaccio-style soccer. Italians began revising their strategies in favor of more offensivesoccer. Italians began revising their strategies in favor of more offensive play without having to give up their strong defense and rapidplay without having to give up their strong defense and rapid counterattacks.counterattacks.
15. Catenaccio in the pastCatenaccio in the past  By 1982, the Italian national team hasBy 1982, the Italian national team has come up with a semi-zonal system, whichcome up with a semi-zonal system, which they used to win over Germany inthey used to win over Germany in thethe 1982 World Cup1982 World Cup Finals by 3 goals toFinals by 3 goals to 1.1. It became apparent in that tournamentIt became apparent in that tournament that Italy was starting to evolve from athat Italy was starting to evolve from a highly defensive system in favor ofhighly defensive system in favor of moremore attack-oriented footballattack-oriented football strategiesstrategies..
16. Catenaccio at presentCatenaccio at present  Catenaccio at presentCatenaccio at present Catenaccio is rarely used today after it diminishedCatenaccio is rarely used today after it diminished in the 1980s. However, hyper-defensive stylesin the 1980s. However, hyper-defensive styles similar to catenaccio are still used at present.similar to catenaccio are still used at present. In theIn the 2004 European Football2004 European Football ChampionshipChampionship, underdog Greece used a, underdog Greece used a defense-oriented football to triumph overdefense-oriented football to triumph over Portugal in the final. ThePortugal in the final. The Greek football squadGreek football squad’s’s style of play reminded many of the catenacciostyle of play reminded many of the catenaccio tactic Italy used to be famous for.tactic Italy used to be famous for.
17. Catenaccio at presentCatenaccio at present  In that game, theIn that game, the Portuguese soccerPortuguese soccer teamteam kept possession most of the time but werekept possession most of the time but were unable to score because of the tight Greekunable to score because of the tight Greek defense. Greece played defense patiently untildefense. Greece played defense patiently until they had the chance to score.they had the chance to score. In the 57th minute, Greece stole the ball andIn the 57th minute, Greece stole the ball and Angelos Charisteas dribbled all the way to the topAngelos Charisteas dribbled all the way to the top of Portugal’s goal to score with a blaster. Greece’sof Portugal’s goal to score with a blaster. Greece’s defense prevented Portugal from scoring and wondefense prevented Portugal from scoring and won the match 1-0.the match 1-0. One football manager closely associated withOne football manager closely associated with catenaccio calcio is Jose Mourinho, who coachedcatenaccio calcio is Jose Mourinho, who coached F.C. Internazionale Milano from 2008 to 2010.F.C. Internazionale Milano from 2008 to 2010.
18. Catenaccio at presentCatenaccio at present  In April 2010, when Inter Milan beat Barcelona inIn April 2010, when Inter Milan beat Barcelona in thethe European Champions LeagueEuropean Champions League semis, the clubsemis, the club used a defensive strategy similar to theused a defensive strategy similar to the catenaccio played by Herrera and Rocco in Italy incatenaccio played by Herrera and Rocco in Italy in the 1950s and 1960s.the 1950s and 1960s. Inter Milan defended tightly and often doubledInter Milan defended tightly and often doubled the man with the ball. Inter Milan also playedthe man with the ball. Inter Milan also played tough defense against Barca’s strikers, such astough defense against Barca’s strikers, such as Lionel Messi.Lionel Messi. Mourinho’s catenaccio, however, required playersMourinho’s catenaccio, however, required players to play further up the field, unlike the traditionalto play further up the field, unlike the traditional catenaccio where players stayed deep in theircatenaccio where players stayed deep in their own pitch.own pitch.
19. Catenaccio at presentCatenaccio at present Today, most of the clubs noted for theToday, most of the clubs noted for the catenaccio style of play are Italian. The listcatenaccio style of play are Italian. The list includes Roma, with its strong four-manincludes Roma, with its strong four-man defense at the back and the Italiandefense at the back and the Italian national team itself, for its 4-3-3 formationnational team itself, for its 4-3-3 formation which sometimes work as the classicwhich sometimes work as the classic catenaccio formation of 1-3-3-3.catenaccio formation of 1-3-3-3. Also, England National Team at Euro 2012Also, England National Team at Euro 2012 played catenaccio, especially againstplayed catenaccio, especially against France.France.
20. Soccer drills to develop catenaccioSoccer drills to develop catenaccio  Principles to remember. Any defensive drillPrinciples to remember. Any defensive drill may work for the development ofmay work for the development of catenaccio.catenaccio.  Therefore, by following the enlisted keyTherefore, by following the enlisted key coaching points, you may develop yourcoaching points, you may develop your catenaccio.catenaccio.  However, coaches must remember theHowever, coaches must remember the libero in front of defence and man-libero in front of defence and man- marking or semi-man marking style.marking or semi-man marking style.
21. Soccer drills to develop catenaccioSoccer drills to develop catenaccio  The Italian national team has grown up on theThe Italian national team has grown up on the defensive system calleddefensive system called CatenaccioCatenaccio – in which the- in which the teams strangle the game then unleash longteams strangle the game then unleash long counter-attacking balls. The team’s ability tocounter-attacking balls. The team’s ability to defend deep is a useful skill for youth soccerdefend deep is a useful skill for youth soccer (football). Use this soccer drill to teach your(football). Use this soccer drill to teach your players these tips and tactics.players these tips and tactics.  Defending deep is an art and can help youngstersDefending deep is an art and can help youngsters play as it creates a good platform for turningplay as it creates a good platform for turning defence into attack. The trick is to force thedefence into attack. The trick is to force the opposition to play square or backward passes inopposition to play square or backward passes in front of you because as a team your defence hasfront of you because as a team your defence has no gaps.no gaps.
22. Soccer drills to develop catenaccioSoccer drills to develop catenaccio  Session title: DEFENDING WITH THE CATENACCIO STYLE.Session title: DEFENDING WITH THE CATENACCIO STYLE.  OrganizationOrganization  The opposition is forced into passing the ball into situations whereThe opposition is forced into passing the ball into situations where your defenders are favorite to win the ball. Once won, they canyour defenders are favorite to win the ball. Once won, they can counter with quick passing and good support.counter with quick passing and good support.  DetailsDetails  This soccer drill deals with defenders and the use of space in frontThis soccer drill deals with defenders and the use of space in front of goal. The tip is to look out for:of goal. The tip is to look out for:  Coaching PointsCoaching Points  Gaps between defenders.Gaps between defenders.  Opportunities to intercept and play forward quickly.Opportunities to intercept and play forward quickly.  Slow reactions when the ball is won.Slow reactions when the ball is won.  The first purpose of this tactic is to prevent a goal beingThe first purpose of this tactic is to prevent a goal being scored, the second to try and counter attack.scored, the second to try and counter attack.  If a counter attack is not on, tell your players they mustIf a counter attack is not on, tell your players they must keepkeep possessionpossession and try to build up more slowly.and try to build up more slowly.  Here’s how to play the soccer drill:Here’s how to play the soccer drill:
23. DiagramDiagram
24. Set upSet up  In an area approx 40m x 10m, the players start as in theIn an area approx 40m x 10m, the players start as in the diagram. There is a 3v3 possession game in the grid at one end.diagram. There is a 3v3 possession game in the grid at one end. In the diagram the white team has won the ball so they play intoIn the diagram the white team has won the ball so they play into the next grid where there is one player from each team, thethe next grid where there is one player from each team, the object is to move the ball forward as soon as possible.object is to move the ball forward as soon as possible.  Two players from each team can move with the ball to advanceTwo players from each team can move with the ball to advance the 3v3 situation through each section of the grid. The playersthe 3v3 situation through each section of the grid. The players should try and play the ball quickly forward to the striker in theshould try and play the ball quickly forward to the striker in the lastlast sectorsector. Again, up to two players from each team can follow. Again, up to two players from each team can follow the pass.the pass. The object is to run the ball into the shaded endThe object is to run the ball into the shaded end zone.zone.  The quicker the ball is moved, the fewer players there are in eachThe quicker the ball is moved, the fewer players there are in each sector and therefore the greater the chance to take advantage ofsector and therefore the greater the chance to take advantage of a break out from a defensive situation.a break out from a defensive situation.  Reverse the drillReverse the drill once the ball reaches the shaded end zone.once the ball reaches the shaded end zone.  http://www.bettersoccercoaching.com/Article-669-47-Defense-Soccer-dhttp://www.bettersoccercoaching.com/Article-669-47-Defense-Soccer-d
25. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style  The 1980s European football became quite popular for theThe 1980s European football became quite popular for the game played by Ac Milan from 1987 to 1993.game played by Ac Milan from 1987 to 1993.  Sacchi brought an evolution to the defensive style of theSacchi brought an evolution to the defensive style of the Italian game. As a result, he made it more offensiveItalian game. As a result, he made it more offensive without excessively going deep in its build.without excessively going deep in its build.
26. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style  Sacchi’s team (Ac Milan) was renowned for itsSacchi’s team (Ac Milan) was renowned for its balance, organisation and intense pressing tacticsbalance, organisation and intense pressing tactics deployed to delay or disrupt oppositiondeployed to delay or disrupt opposition possession as well as regaining the ball.possession as well as regaining the ball.  At the base of the team, there was a back fourAt the base of the team, there was a back four who played as a sliding arc, only ever flat whenwho played as a sliding arc, only ever flat when the opposition’s possession was central.the opposition’s possession was central.  Sacchi drilled this into his defenders relentlessly.Sacchi drilled this into his defenders relentlessly. Paolo Malidini commented “each player was asPaolo Malidini commented “each player was as important defensively as he was in attack, it wasimportant defensively as he was in attack, it was a side in which players and not positions werea side in which players and not positions were key.”key.”
27. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style  Zone play can be defined as mainlyZone play can be defined as mainly defensive tactics aiming at regainingdefensive tactics aiming at regaining possession of the ball; in this context thepossession of the ball; in this context the opposing player with the ball must haveopposing player with the ball must have the impression that he is playing againstthe impression that he is playing against 11 players.11 players.  In relation to the position of the playerIn relation to the position of the player with the ball of the ball itself, each singlewith the ball of the ball itself, each single player must cover a certain space (zone)player must cover a certain space (zone) through zone-marking (a kind of man-through zone-marking (a kind of man- marking, but not systematically performedmarking, but not systematically performed on the same player)on the same player)
28. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style  A key part of his practice was the shadow playA key part of his practice was the shadow play drills he ran his team through, seen asdrills he ran his team through, seen as revolutionary in continental Europe at the time.revolutionary in continental Europe at the time.  Defensively, Sacchi would line his team upDefensively, Sacchi would line his team up without opposition, place flags on the pitch towithout opposition, place flags on the pitch to represent the ball and have his players organiserepresent the ball and have his players organise into their defensive shape to defend each flag asinto their defensive shape to defend each flag as if it were a player in possession.if it were a player in possession.  He would then simulate a ball moving around theHe would then simulate a ball moving around the pitch with his voice and actions, requiring thepitch with his voice and actions, requiring the players to move accordingly where he wouldplayers to move accordingly where he would correct positioning in the process.correct positioning in the process.
29. Example of pattern play to coach team shapeExample of pattern play to coach team shape (team defending black flag):(team defending black flag):
30. Example of team compactnessExample of team compactness during defending phase:during defending phase:
31. Arrigo Sacchi’s 4-4-2: High Pressure, AttackingArrigo Sacchi’s 4-4-2: High Pressure, Attacking Tactic for Top Teams and UnderdogsTactic for Top Teams and Underdogs
32. Sacchi’s philosophySacchi’s philosophy  So this tactic is based on the philosophySo this tactic is based on the philosophy behind Arrigo Sacchi’s 4-4-2 approach.behind Arrigo Sacchi’s 4-4-2 approach.  Sacchi played with high intensity and aSacchi played with high intensity and a high defensive line. This enabled him tohigh defensive line. This enabled him to squeeze the play in the middle of park,squeeze the play in the middle of park, and ensured that the distance between hisand ensured that the distance between his defensive and forward lines was neverdefensive and forward lines was never more than 25 metres.more than 25 metres.
33. Sacchi’s philosophySacchi’s philosophy  Essentially, this constituted naturallyEssentially, this constituted naturally occurring pressing, perhaps one of theoccurring pressing, perhaps one of the first in football with such velocity. Sacchifirst in football with such velocity. Sacchi reasoned that by squeezing the pitch, inreasoned that by squeezing the pitch, in order for his opponent to get through hisorder for his opponent to get through his side, they’d need to break down threeside, they’d need to break down three lines of players in quick succession. Notlines of players in quick succession. Not many managed it. Attacking-wise, theremany managed it. Attacking-wise, there was no one strict way to break down thewas no one strict way to break down the opposition.opposition.
34. Sacchi’s philosophySacchi’s philosophy  Chances were created through build-Chances were created through build- up/passing play through the middle,up/passing play through the middle, crosses from wide and counter-crosses from wide and counter- attacks. Sacchi was a proponent ofattacks. Sacchi was a proponent of multi-purpose players. Not fond ofmulti-purpose players. Not fond of the specialist, he looked for all of histhe specialist, he looked for all of his players to be capable of every job onplayers to be capable of every job on the field, which is why histhe field, which is why his interchanging 4-4-2 worked so well.interchanging 4-4-2 worked so well.
35. Sacchi’s philosophySacchi’s philosophy  The midfielders were well-rounded andThe midfielders were well-rounded and functional in every area, his forwardsfunctional in every area, his forwards chased and his defenders pushed up.chased and his defenders pushed up. Teamwork was what his side wereTeamwork was what his side were predicated on, and it was teamwork thatpredicated on, and it was teamwork that allowed them to become one of theallowed them to become one of the greatest sides in footballing history.greatest sides in footballing history.  For more information on Arrigo Sacchi andFor more information on Arrigo Sacchi and the basis of this tactic, this is a goodthe basis of this tactic, this is a good read:read: ArrigoArrigo Sacchi’sSacchi’s Method – The Football CoachMethod – The Football Coach
36. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style  The pressing tactics used, were it always to regainThe pressing tactics used, were it always to regain possession of the ball.possession of the ball.  Sacchi would use methods of ‘partial pressing’ whereSacchi would use methods of ‘partial pressing’ where players would concentrate more on jockeying rather thanplayers would concentrate more on jockeying rather than winning possession. That would bring opponents to makewinning possession. That would bring opponents to make mistakes. And therefore, to lose possession.mistakes. And therefore, to lose possession.  In other situations, he would instruct his team to carry outIn other situations, he would instruct his team to carry out ‘total pressing’ where regaining the ball became the priority‘total pressing’ where regaining the ball became the priority and on other occasions he would instruct the players toand on other occasions he would instruct the players to utilize ‘fake pressing’ where the team made pressingutilize ‘fake pressing’ where the team made pressing movements but of a lower intensity designed to allow themovements but of a lower intensity designed to allow the players to recuperate.players to recuperate.  ““Pressing is not about running and it’s not about workingPressing is not about running and it’s not about working hard, it’s about controlling space” he said. “Pressing washard, it’s about controlling space” he said. “Pressing was always collective, I wanted all eleven players in an activealways collective, I wanted all eleven players in an active position, effecting and influencing the opposition when weposition, effecting and influencing the opposition when we did not have the ball.”did not have the ball.”
37. Example of Sacchi’s pressingExample of Sacchi’s pressing 11 9 1 2 3 5 4 6 8 10 7
38. Example of Sacchi’s pressingExample of Sacchi’s pressing  As we can see, players formation is divided inAs we can see, players formation is divided in three zones,three zones,  Zone 1/ where defenders are (4-3-2-5)Zone 1/ where defenders are (4-3-2-5)  Zone 2/ where midfielders are (7-10-8-6)Zone 2/ where midfielders are (7-10-8-6)  Zone 3/ where attackers are (11-9)Zone 3/ where attackers are (11-9)  The aim is not to win the ball as quick as possibleThe aim is not to win the ball as quick as possible but to control the space of the pitch. Especially inbut to control the space of the pitch. Especially in your own half. By doing so, you will force youryour own half. By doing so, you will force your opponents to move the ball around. And if youopponents to move the ball around. And if you control the space, they will be vulnerable. So,control the space, they will be vulnerable. So, soon or later they will lose possession.soon or later they will lose possession.  Compactness and being strict by both zones isCompactness and being strict by both zones is mandatory for this system to work out.mandatory for this system to work out.
39. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style  Sacchi’s team were compact, moved as a unitSacchi’s team were compact, moved as a unit and were well drilled.and were well drilled.  He ensured that the distance between defenceHe ensured that the distance between defence and forwards was never more than 25 meters,and forwards was never more than 25 meters, essentially with the compactness and arcs in theessentially with the compactness and arcs in the two banks of four, a natural pressing team shapetwo banks of four, a natural pressing team shape occurred.occurred.  ““In the defensive phase, all players had fourIn the defensive phase, all players had four reference points; the ball, the space, thereference points; the ball, the space, the opponent and team-mates.opponent and team-mates.  Every movement had to be a function of thoseEvery movement had to be a function of those four reference points.four reference points.
40. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style
41. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style  As showing in the following picture figure 1 in the next page, the field hasAs showing in the following picture figure 1 in the next page, the field has been divided into four zones, called A,B,C, and D; zones B and C arebeen divided into four zones, called A,B,C, and D; zones B and C are narrower than A and D because, as they are in the middle, they are anarrower than A and D because, as they are in the middle, they are a major source of danger. This division is necessary from a teaching point ofmajor source of danger. This division is necessary from a teaching point of view and has been made to show in which zones the four backs and theview and has been made to show in which zones the four backs and the four midfielders can move.four midfielders can move.  There are no fixed rules for the forwards; nevertheless they have zones ofThere are no fixed rules for the forwards; nevertheless they have zones of responsibility when defending, according to the same principle used for theresponsibility when defending, according to the same principle used for the backs and the midfielders.backs and the midfielders.  To zone-cover, each player must cover his space (his zone) and, if neededTo zone-cover, each player must cover his space (his zone) and, if needed one of the adjoining zones. So, the Left Side Back and the Left Sideone of the adjoining zones. So, the Left Side Back and the Left Side Midfielder must cover zone “A” and, if needed, zone “B”. The Right SideMidfielder must cover zone “A” and, if needed, zone “B”. The Right Side Back and the Right Side Midfielder must take care of zone “D” and, in caseBack and the Right Side Midfielder must take care of zone “D” and, in case of necessity, of zone “C”, while the Left Central Back and the Left Centralof necessity, of zone “C”, while the Left Central Back and the Left Central Midfielder must take care of zone “B” and if needed, of zones “C” and “A”.Midfielder must take care of zone “B” and if needed, of zones “C” and “A”.  Finally, the Right Central Back and the Right Central Midfielder must coverFinally, the Right Central Back and the Right Central Midfielder must cover zone “C” and, in case of necessity, zones “B” and “D”. The two forwards,zone “C” and, in case of necessity, zones “B” and “D”. The two forwards, number 11 and 9, could cover the central zones, that is zone “B” and zonenumber 11 and 9, could cover the central zones, that is zone “B” and zone “C”, so as to push the opponents to start the action on the sides, where it“C”, so as to push the opponents to start the action on the sides, where it is less difficult to press and double-mark.is less difficult to press and double-mark.
42. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style  Each player had to decide which of the four willEach player had to decide which of the four will determine his movement.” He added, “The keydetermine his movement.” He added, “The key was the short team. I used to tell my players ifwas the short team. I used to tell my players if we played with the distance of 25 metres fromwe played with the distance of 25 metres from last defender to forward, given our ability nobodylast defender to forward, given our ability nobody would beat us.”would beat us.” The aggressive offside trap meant it was hard forThe aggressive offside trap meant it was hard for teams to exploit space behind and three compactteams to exploit space behind and three compact units in defence meant playing through the teamunits in defence meant playing through the team was extremely difficult. “This allowed us not towas extremely difficult. “This allowed us not to spend too much energy, to get to the ball firstspend too much energy, to get to the ball first and not to get too tired.”and not to get too tired.”
43. Example of the aggressive offsideExample of the aggressive offside traptrap 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 9
44. Example of the aggressive offsideExample of the aggressive offside traptrap  Looking at the defensive line (2-3-4-5) we mayLooking at the defensive line (2-3-4-5) we may see, the line has reached the middle of the pitchsee, the line has reached the middle of the pitch to force strikers to be in their own half. Thisto force strikers to be in their own half. This prevents them from going deep, and give spaceprevents them from going deep, and give space to their team. If the opponents’ attackers go farto their team. If the opponents’ attackers go far from their half, they will be offside.from their half, they will be offside.  The midfielders line (8-7-6-10) is shaped slightlyThe midfielders line (8-7-6-10) is shaped slightly different. 8 and 10, the two wingers are a little indifferent. 8 and 10, the two wingers are a little in front. This is due to the 11 and 9 pressing. If theyfront. This is due to the 11 and 9 pressing. If they should win the ball, 8 and 10 must be ready toshould win the ball, 8 and 10 must be ready to support them in the building of the countersupport them in the building of the counter attack. That’s how you may keep opponentsattack. That’s how you may keep opponents offside.offside.  It is also a good way of pressing, as you mayIt is also a good way of pressing, as you may control space.control space.
45. Off-side TacticsOff-side Tactics  In the general strategy of the team, theIn the general strategy of the team, the off-side tactics could be defined as alloff-side tactics could be defined as all those actions aiming at regainingthose actions aiming at regaining possession of the ball. In Italy soccer off-possession of the ball. In Italy soccer off- side can take place in two specific ways:side can take place in two specific ways:  By receiving an indirect free kick;By receiving an indirect free kick;  Taking the ball away from the opponentsTaking the ball away from the opponents thanks to the application of pressure.thanks to the application of pressure.  It is important when applying an off-sideIt is important when applying an off-side trap, one of the two central backs musttrap, one of the two central backs must lead the off-side, calling the time of itslead the off-side, calling the time of its execution even with a password.execution even with a password.
46. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style  In conclusion, Sacchi’s Milan was an organised, compactIn conclusion, Sacchi’s Milan was an organised, compact and intense unit without the ball whose tactical nousand intense unit without the ball whose tactical nous allowed it to win the ball back in favourable positions whilstallowed it to win the ball back in favourable positions whilst still ensuring solidarity in its defensive third.still ensuring solidarity in its defensive third.  In possession, players such as Gullit, Van Basten andIn possession, players such as Gullit, Van Basten and Rijkaard were able to affect play due to their superbRijkaard were able to affect play due to their superb football intelligence in dangerous areas of the pitch.football intelligence in dangerous areas of the pitch.  The creative freedom was not compromised by Sacchi’sThe creative freedom was not compromised by Sacchi’s organisation and structure, so often the criticism of coachesorganisation and structure, so often the criticism of coaches who attempt similar, organised systems.who attempt similar, organised systems.  Strictly defensive, was not how the team were. “I alwaysStrictly defensive, was not how the team were. “I always demanded, that at least five players were ahead of the balldemanded, that at least five players were ahead of the ball when we won possession. There would always be a manwhen we won possession. There would always be a man wide right, a man wide left.”wide right, a man wide left.”
47. The 4-4-2 Sacchi’s styleThe 4-4-2 Sacchi’s style
48. PositioningPositioning  In the zone play the back must cover a determined space, he must beIn the zone play the back must cover a determined space, he must be positioned so that he can see the ball and his goal and must be placed, orpositioned so that he can see the ball and his goal and must be placed, or in a position to get himself placed, in between the opponent and his ownin a position to get himself placed, in between the opponent and his own goal.goal.  As shown in figure 2, the back must be able to man-mark or to mark inAs shown in figure 2, the back must be able to man-mark or to mark in advance the opponent playing in his zone of responsibility; the longer theadvance the opponent playing in his zone of responsibility; the longer the distance between the player with the ball and the marked opponent, thedistance between the player with the ball and the marked opponent, the sharper the advance.sharper the advance.  To mark in advance means that the back must be in a position to eitherTo mark in advance means that the back must be in a position to either intercept the ball or place himself between the opponent and his own goal.intercept the ball or place himself between the opponent and his own goal.  Beside the positioning of the four backs and of the goalkeeper with respectBeside the positioning of the four backs and of the goalkeeper with respect to the position of the player with the ball, we try to explain what we meanto the position of the player with the ball, we try to explain what we mean when we say that “ the back must be placed, or in a position to get himselfwhen we say that “ the back must be placed, or in a position to get himself placed, in between the opponent and his own goal.”placed, in between the opponent and his own goal.”  Player number 2 is positioned so that he can see the ball and his goal (justPlayer number 2 is positioned so that he can see the ball and his goal (just like the other backs); note he is not placed in between opposing player Blike the other backs); note he is not placed in between opposing player B and his own goal, but he is in a position to do it in case opposing player Aand his own goal, but he is in a position to do it in case opposing player A decides to switch the direction of the play: the 3-4 seconds the ball takesdecides to switch the direction of the play: the 3-4 seconds the ball takes to get to B enable player number 2 to recover his position, getting into theto get to B enable player number 2 to recover his position, getting into the ideal triangle connecting the goal-line and its posts to player B.ideal triangle connecting the goal-line and its posts to player B.  More exactly, the Right Side Back must be able to place himself into theMore exactly, the Right Side Back must be able to place himself into the hatched area of the triangle closer to player B. Figure 3 shows you howhatched area of the triangle closer to player B. Figure 3 shows you how players react when the ball reaches B.players react when the ball reaches B.
49. Figure 3Figure 3
50. The Strong Side and Weak SideThe Strong Side and Weak Side  With Strong Side we mean theWith Strong Side we mean the “side”, or more generally the zone,“side”, or more generally the zone, where there is the opposing playerwhere there is the opposing player with the ball.with the ball.  With Weak Side we mean the “side”,With Weak Side we mean the “side”, or more generally the zone (s), awayor more generally the zone (s), away from the opposing player with thefrom the opposing player with the ball, where eventual opponents mayball, where eventual opponents may placed as shown in figure 4.placed as shown in figure 4.
51. Figure 4Figure 4
52. Starting Position and AttackStarting Position and Attack PositionPosition  In figure 5 we can see the 11 players arranged on the fieldIn figure 5 we can see the 11 players arranged on the field according to what can be defined the “Starting Position”; in suchaccording to what can be defined the “Starting Position”; in such an arrangement, the team is ready to start a collective movementan arrangement, the team is ready to start a collective movement to cover the spaces with respect to the position of the ball.to cover the spaces with respect to the position of the ball.  In order to develop an attack, the team will have to switch fromIn order to develop an attack, the team will have to switch from the “starting position” to a more advanced and wilder one, whichthe “starting position” to a more advanced and wilder one, which can be defined Attack Position. As you can see number 11 and 9can be defined Attack Position. As you can see number 11 and 9 are the first ones to start attacking.are the first ones to start attacking.  Figure 5 is also a specific exercise based on the collectiveFigure 5 is also a specific exercise based on the collective movement of the 11 players from the starting position to themovement of the 11 players from the starting position to the attack position and vice versa could be useful to make the playersattack position and vice versa could be useful to make the players familiar with the right positioning.familiar with the right positioning.  A shadow play practice. Ball is indicated with the black asset.A shadow play practice. Ball is indicated with the black asset. While blue is supposed to be the coach.While blue is supposed to be the coach.  While recovering the starting position, the players should runWhile recovering the starting position, the players should run sideways so as to see both the ball in the possession of the coachsideways so as to see both the ball in the possession of the coach (who is more advanced with respect to all the players) and their(who is more advanced with respect to all the players) and their own goal. As shown in figure 6own goal. As shown in figure 6
53. Figure 5Figure 5
54. Figure 6Figure 6
55. Players in Pairs and ThreesPlayers in Pairs and Threes  When playing 4-4-2 at Ac Milan, SacchiWhen playing 4-4-2 at Ac Milan, Sacchi used to apply a 4-4-2 pattern zone play,used to apply a 4-4-2 pattern zone play, groups of PAIRS and THREES form almostgroups of PAIRS and THREES form almost spontaneously according to the players’spontaneously according to the players’ position on the field.position on the field.  Such clusters are necessary because theSuch clusters are necessary because the players adjacent or in nearby zones of theplayers adjacent or in nearby zones of the field must help each other thoroughly.field must help each other thoroughly.  To make it happen, the players involved inTo make it happen, the players involved in a pair or in a group of three must train ina pair or in a group of three must train in close contact so that they can get onclose contact so that they can get on better together and learn more about howbetter together and learn more about how their teammates play.their teammates play.
56. Players in Pairs and ThreesPlayers in Pairs and Threes  Pairs and threes are pointed out in figure 7: the related playersPairs and threes are pointed out in figure 7: the related players are respectively contained in a rectangle and in a triangle.are respectively contained in a rectangle and in a triangle.  The Left Side Back and the Left Side Midfielder are the left sideThe Left Side Back and the Left Side Midfielder are the left side pair; their collaboration is characterized by their interchange inpair; their collaboration is characterized by their interchange in both phases and by the good timing in double-marking on theboth phases and by the good timing in double-marking on the right side.right side.  The main characteristics that the side backs, that is the Right SideThe main characteristics that the side backs, that is the Right Side Back and the Left Side Back, should have are identical: enduranceBack and the Left Side Back, should have are identical: endurance in performing break-aways along the sides at high speed, skill inin performing break-aways along the sides at high speed, skill in cross-passing from the end of the field, effectiveness both incross-passing from the end of the field, effectiveness both in defending and attacking.defending and attacking.  The main characteristics that the side midfielders, namely theThe main characteristics that the side midfielders, namely the Right Side Midfielder and the Left Side Midfielder should have areRight Side Midfielder and the Left Side Midfielder should have are the same as those specified above for side backs; in addition, theythe same as those specified above for side backs; in addition, they should have superior basic skill and creativeness, which isshould have superior basic skill and creativeness, which is fundamental in attack.fundamental in attack.  The Left Central Back and the Right Central Back are the centralThe Left Central Back and the Right Central Back are the central back pair. Besides getting on well together, they should have suchback pair. Besides getting on well together, they should have such skills and physical characteristics as to balance each other: speed,skills and physical characteristics as to balance each other: speed, skill in playing with the ball off the ground, good basic skill andskill in playing with the ball off the ground, good basic skill and remarkable personality should be their main features.remarkable personality should be their main features.
57. Players in Pairs and ThreesPlayers in Pairs and Threes  The Left Central Midfielder and the RightThe Left Central Midfielder and the Right Central Midfielder are the centralCentral Midfielder are the central midfielder pair.midfielder pair.  They too should have such characteristicsThey too should have such characteristics as to balance each other: one of themas to balance each other: one of them should be physically strong, able toshould be physically strong, able to “tackle”, good at heading; the other one,“tackle”, good at heading; the other one, even with simple passes, should be able toeven with simple passes, should be able to give new solutions to the play.give new solutions to the play.  He should also be good at shooting from aHe should also be good at shooting from a distance and at making long passes. Bothdistance and at making long passes. Both players should have a strong tacticalplayers should have a strong tactical sense.sense.
58. Players in Pairs and ThreesPlayers in Pairs and Threes  The forward pair should be made upThe forward pair should be made up of a player able to play as a TARGETof a player able to play as a TARGET MAN- physically strong, good atMAN- physically strong, good at heading and able to play with theheading and able to play with the opposing goal at his back and by aopposing goal at his back and by a rapid,rapid,  quick forward with good individualquick forward with good individual skill, who likes starting from askill, who likes starting from a distance and moving all over thedistance and moving all over the attacking front.attacking front.
59. Figure 7Figure 7 Pairs: 11/9, 10/3, 5/6, 8/4, 7/2Pairs: 11/9, 10/3, 5/6, 8/4, 7/2
60. Strategy, Tactics, Short and TightStrategy, Tactics, Short and Tight Team, Pressure and Off-SideTeam, Pressure and Off-Side  Definition of Strategy ( a game plan through which, bearing in mind theDefinition of Strategy ( a game plan through which, bearing in mind the rules of the game, one’s own strong and weak points, the possiblerules of the game, one’s own strong and weak points, the possible behavior of the opponents, and the expected match conditions, thebehavior of the opponents, and the expected match conditions, the potential decisions on the way the team will play during the match arepotential decisions on the way the team will play during the match are mentally anticipated and established.mentally anticipated and established.  Definition of Tactics ( tactics are all the different ways the team may play,Definition of Tactics ( tactics are all the different ways the team may play, the actions and the individual and collective operations of the playersthe actions and the individual and collective operations of the players through which), bearing in mind the rules of the game, the actions of one’sthrough which), bearing in mind the rules of the game, the actions of one’s own teammates and of the opponents, as well as the eventual externalown teammates and of the opponents, as well as the eventual external factors and conditions, may be influenced and used to one’s ownfactors and conditions, may be influenced and used to one’s own advantage.advantage.  Short and Tight Team ( In modern play as a whole, and in zone inShort and Tight Team ( In modern play as a whole, and in zone in particular, when the ball is in the opponent’s possession the team mustparticular, when the ball is in the opponent’s possession the team must arrange itself on the field in such a way as to be short (with respect to thearrange itself on the field in such a way as to be short (with respect to the length of the field, all the players should be placed in about 30 yards) andlength of the field, all the players should be placed in about 30 yards) and TIGHT (with respect to the width of the field, the players will placeTIGHT (with respect to the width of the field, the players will place themselves so as to have superiority in numbers in the zone where the ballthemselves so as to have superiority in numbers in the zone where the ball is)is)  Pressure can be defined as the team movement that closes the space onPressure can be defined as the team movement that closes the space on the man with the ball, reducing his available time of play. Pressure is thethe man with the ball, reducing his available time of play. Pressure is the coordinated movement of several players aiming at forcing the man withcoordinated movement of several players aiming at forcing the man with the ball to perform a predictable move (dribble or pass) or a chance move,the ball to perform a predictable move (dribble or pass) or a chance move, enabling them to regain possession of the ball.enabling them to regain possession of the ball.
61. Defensive Organization aimed atDefensive Organization aimed at starting an attackstarting an attack  Organized Attack (in zone play, eachOrganized Attack (in zone play, each player belongs to a certain area: so,player belongs to a certain area: so, when a player regains possession ofwhen a player regains possession of the ball, he and all his teammatesthe ball, he and all his teammates are in their own usual area withare in their own usual area with possible shifts due to the position ofpossible shifts due to the position of the opponent with the ball).the opponent with the ball).  This fact is an advantage to start anThis fact is an advantage to start an attack: as all the players are in theirattack: as all the players are in their natural positions.natural positions.
62. Defensive Organization aimed atDefensive Organization aimed at starting an attackstarting an attack  If your opponents are well-organized, it isIf your opponents are well-organized, it is not easy to develop attacking schemesnot easy to develop attacking schemes identical to the ones studied and tried outidentical to the ones studied and tried out during the training sessions.during the training sessions.  The primary aim of the attacking schemeThe primary aim of the attacking scheme is to generate in the players a “groupis to generate in the players a “group mentality” which puts the team (thementality” which puts the team (the group) above the single player.group) above the single player.  The repetition of certain schemes duringThe repetition of certain schemes during the training sessions also gives the playersthe training sessions also gives the players an imprint of the kind of play the coachan imprint of the kind of play the coach intends to carry out.intends to carry out.
63. Exercise to make the ball circulateExercise to make the ball circulate between the back fourbetween the back four  Because of the obvious safety reasons, theBecause of the obvious safety reasons, the ball should never circulate parallel to theball should never circulate parallel to the midfield line:midfield line:  it should be passed from one back to theit should be passed from one back to the other in such a way as to make theother in such a way as to make the trajectory of the ball form an angle to thetrajectory of the ball form an angle to the horizontal axis of the field.horizontal axis of the field.  To make this happen, the back four mustTo make this happen, the back four must place themselves according to a half-moonplace themselves according to a half-moon formation. As shown in figure 12 and 13.formation. As shown in figure 12 and 13.
64. Figure 12 and 13Figure 12 and 13 X X X X Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y X X X X 12 13
65. Figure 12 and 13Figure 12 and 13  Y are defenders while X attackers. SmallY are defenders while X attackers. Small blue ring: the ball.blue ring: the ball.  We can notice Y’s line getting shapedWe can notice Y’s line getting shaped differently depending on where the ball is.differently depending on where the ball is.  While making players work on pressingWhile making players work on pressing and covering, a good idea would be ofand covering, a good idea would be of keeping players on foot jumping off whilekeeping players on foot jumping off while waiting for the ball to be played to thewaiting for the ball to be played to the opposite attacker, so they may be readyopposite attacker, so they may be ready to press him much quicker. As shown into press him much quicker. As shown in figure 13.2.figure 13.2.
66. Figure 13.2Figure 13.2 x x x x
67. Half-moon formationHalf-moon formation  When the backs regain possession ofWhen the backs regain possession of the ball, they are within the strongthe ball, they are within the strong side; therefore, besides making theside; therefore, besides making the ball circulate towards the oppositeball circulate towards the opposite side (as it is presumably free fromside (as it is presumably free from opponents), they must moveopponents), they must move towards that side in such a way as totowards that side in such a way as to place themselves uniformly on theplace themselves uniformly on the field.field.
68. Half-moon formation figure 13Half-moon formation figure 13
69. Half-moon Formation Figure 13.2Half-moon Formation Figure 13.2
70. Attack SchemesAttack Schemes  Shadow Play 11v0Shadow Play 11v0  In the following pages you can find 5In the following pages you can find 5 attacking “schemes” which we wouldattacking “schemes” which we would prefer to define as organized movementsprefer to define as organized movements to prepare an attack, aiming at shooting atto prepare an attack, aiming at shooting at goal.goal.  We would not like to define our attackingWe would not like to define our attacking proposals as schemes, because ifproposals as schemes, because if interpreted in an extremely strict way theyinterpreted in an extremely strict way they could be restrictive to imagination incould be restrictive to imagination in particular in the final phase of theirparticular in the final phase of their application where the presence of theapplication where the presence of the opponent strongly affects the move.opponent strongly affects the move.
71. Attack SchemesAttack Schemes  In the final part of the attack we think that roomIn the final part of the attack we think that room should be made for the inventiveness and theshould be made for the inventiveness and the creativity of the individual player, depending oncreativity of the individual player, depending on the occuring situation.the occuring situation.  As a consequence, most of our attackingAs a consequence, most of our attacking proposals- which we will inaccurately callproposals- which we will inaccurately call schemes – do not give a complete solution for theschemes – do not give a complete solution for the final part of the attack.final part of the attack.  All 5 schemes have been conceived, andAll 5 schemes have been conceived, and examples given, with movements on the right orexamples given, with movements on the right or center-right zone of the field. Of course, eachcenter-right zone of the field. Of course, each scheme can be executed in a mirror way on thescheme can be executed in a mirror way on the left or center-left zone of the field.left or center-left zone of the field.
72. Scheme 1Scheme 1
73. Scheme 2Scheme 2
74. Scheme 3Scheme 3
75. Scheme 4Scheme 4
76. Scheme 5Scheme 5
77.  For more info on Sacchi 4-4-2 style,For more info on Sacchi 4-4-2 style, just googlejust google Marziali, F, Mora, V,Marziali, F, Mora, V, Coaching the 4-4-Coaching the 4-4- 2 Zone Play The Flat Back Four2 Zone Play The Flat Back Four Defence Attacking Schemes,Defence Attacking Schemes, Reedswain Inc, Spring City 1997Reedswain Inc, Spring City 1997 ISBN 0965102084ISBN 0965102084
78. 4-4-2 The Ancelotti’s way4-4-2 The Ancelotti’s way  Carlo Ancelotti: Italy National TeamCarlo Ancelotti: Italy National Team (Assistant), Parma, Juventus, Ac(Assistant), Parma, Juventus, Ac Milan, Chelsea, Psg and Real MadridMilan, Chelsea, Psg and Real Madrid CoachCoach
79. Ancelotti on the Italian FootballAncelotti on the Italian Football  ““The Italian culture of football is to defend.The Italian culture of football is to defend. Catenaccio (a football strategy based onCatenaccio (a football strategy based on defending by fixing up players like if they weredefending by fixing up players like if they were pieces of chain) started in Italy. In the Italianpieces of chain) started in Italy. In the Italian league you also have to play against differentleague you also have to play against different systems: 4-4-2, 3-5-2, 3-4-1-2, so you have tosystems: 4-4-2, 3-5-2, 3-4-1-2, so you have to be very flexible to change and adapt yourbe very flexible to change and adapt your strategy in the game against different systems.strategy in the game against different systems.  In Italy the rhythm of the game is not so strong.In Italy the rhythm of the game is not so strong. Italian teams have a lot of knowledge defensivelyItalian teams have a lot of knowledge defensively and the first priority is not to concede a goal.and the first priority is not to concede a goal. That is the mentality”.That is the mentality”. FA Learning,FA Learning, The FA LCC Magazine/ Issue April 09, 2014,The FA LCC Magazine/ Issue April 09, 2014, pp 22-23pp 22-23
80. Ancelotti 4-4-2 at Ac MilanAncelotti 4-4-2 at Ac Milan  @footystudent does a@footystudent does a very good analysis ofvery good analysis of Ancelotti’s diamondAncelotti’s diamond stylestyle
81. Key Phases of PlayKey Phases of Play  With the ball • Play from the back &With the ball • Play from the back & through the 3rds • Use of width fromthrough the 3rds • Use of width from full backs • Direct short penetratingfull backs • Direct short penetrating passes • Creativitypasses • Creativity  Without the ball • Win the ball backWithout the ball • Win the ball back as quickly as possible • Press high •as quickly as possible • Press high • Tight & regain shape • ConcentrationTight & regain shape • Concentration
82. Key Phases of PlayKey Phases of Play  When the ball has just been wonWhen the ball has just been won back • Keep possession – minimumback • Keep possession – minimum 2/3 passes to secure possession2/3 passes to secure possession again • Create width & depth •again • Create width & depth • Change angle of play When the ballChange angle of play When the ball has just been lost • Win it back closehas just been lost • Win it back close to oppositions goal if possible •to oppositions goal if possible • Regain possession quick as possible •Regain possession quick as possible • Press high • Organise defensivePress high • Organise defensive shapeshape
83. Figure 14Figure 14
84. AdvantagesAdvantages  Dominances in midfield • StrengthDominances in midfield • Strength throughout the middle of the pitch •throughout the middle of the pitch • Presence of front 2 • Converts easilyPresence of front 2 • Converts easily into • 4-3-3 ,4-4-2 split striker & 4-into • 4-3-3 ,4-4-2 split striker & 4- 2-3-1 or 4-4-2 flat • Allows creative2-3-1 or 4-4-2 flat • Allows creative no.10 with balance behind • Allowsno.10 with balance behind • Allows fullbacks to attack • Allows twofullbacks to attack • Allows two striker combination • Allows to pressstriker combination • Allows to press highhigh
85. ConcernsConcerns  Lack of width in attack if fullbacksLack of width in attack if fullbacks don’t join in • Space in wide areasdon’t join in • Space in wide areas when defending • Open to quickwhen defending • Open to quick switch of play counter attacksswitch of play counter attacks
86. Figure 15Figure 15
87. Figure 16Figure 16
88. Figure 17Figure 17
89. Figure 18Figure 18
90. Figure 19Figure 19
91. Figure 20Figure 20
92. Figure 21Figure 21
93. Figure 22Figure 22
94.  For more info about the 4-4-2For more info about the 4-4-2 diamond and Ancelotti’s style, justdiamond and Ancelotti’s style, just googlegoogle 4-4-2 diamond Footystudent pdf4-4-2 diamond Footystudent pdf
95. Marcello Lippi’s success at 2006Marcello Lippi’s success at 2006 World CupWorld Cup
96. Italy formationItaly formation Buffon Cannavaro Grosso Materazzi Zambrotta Pirlo De Rossi Camoranesi Gattuso(Perrotta) Toni Gilardino(Totti)
97. Lippi’s principlesLippi’s principles  When he was in charge for JuventusWhen he was in charge for Juventus FC, Lippi brought a new combinationFC, Lippi brought a new combination style of the famous catenaccio mixedstyle of the famous catenaccio mixed with Sacchi’s offensive and zonewith Sacchi’s offensive and zone marking style.marking style.  Lippi’s success was due to his largeLippi’s success was due to his large flexibility of adapting his game to theflexibility of adapting his game to the players needs and clubs ambitions.players needs and clubs ambitions.
98. Why did the Italian style still work?Why did the Italian style still work?  It was defensive, offensivelyIt was defensive, offensively balanced and adapted to the playersbalanced and adapted to the players style.style.  The majority of Lippi’s players atThe majority of Lippi’s players at Italy were all aware of the ItalianItaly were all aware of the Italian tactics formations, as almost anyonetactics formations, as almost anyone of them had only been playing in theof them had only been playing in the Italian League.Italian League.
99. Other reasonsOther reasons  Brazil failed with his top-playersBrazil failed with his top-players Ronaldo, Adriano, Ronaldinho, KakaRonaldo, Adriano, Ronaldinho, Kaka  Although France was good, it was tooAlthough France was good, it was too much led by Zinedine Zidanemuch led by Zinedine Zidane  The style of catenaccio and Sacchi’sThe style of catenaccio and Sacchi’s offensive strategies did work againstoffensive strategies did work against Germany in the semifinal.Germany in the semifinal.
100. The Italian Way right nowThe Italian Way right now  The following discussed principles wereThe following discussed principles were easily adopted by Roberto di Matteo whilsteasily adopted by Roberto di Matteo whilst he was in charge for Chelsea in 2012.he was in charge for Chelsea in 2012.  Other coaches who are using this style areOther coaches who are using this style are National Italy Team Coach Antonio Conte,National Italy Team Coach Antonio Conte, current Juventus FC Coach Massimo Allegricurrent Juventus FC Coach Massimo Allegri and current Fiorentina FC Coach Vincenzoand current Fiorentina FC Coach Vincenzo Montella.Montella.
101. ReferencesReferences  http://www.footballbible.comwww.footballbible.comhttp://www.youtubeArrigoSacchi4-4-2.comwww.youtubeArrigoSacchi4-4-2.com  Michels, R,Michels, R, Teambuilding the road to successTeambuilding the road to success,, Reedswain Publishing, Holland, 2001Reedswain Publishing, Holland, 2001  FA Learning,FA Learning, Fa Boot Room April 2014 MagazineFa Boot Room April 2014 Magazine An Englishman abroadAn Englishman abroad  Marziali, F, Mora, V,Marziali, F, Mora, V, Coaching the 4-4-2 ZoneCoaching the 4-4-2 Zone Play The Flat Back Four Defence AttackingPlay The Flat Back Four Defence Attacking Schemes,Schemes, Reedswain Inc, Spring City 1997 ISBNReedswain Inc, Spring City 1997 ISBN 09651020840965102084  Seedhouse, R.Seedhouse, R. Coaching the Coach A completeCoaching the Coach A complete guide how to coach soccer skills through drills,guide how to coach soccer skills through drills, Authors Online Ltd, Bedfordshire 2007Authors Online Ltd, Bedfordshire 2007

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